Health Technology

 

The Graduate Program in Health Technology (PPGTS) at the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, CAPES score 4, investigates phenomena related to human health through the integrated application of concepts and techniques related to technology and health. The program’s objective is to contribute to health technology improvement, expanding its access to the population. It operates in three coordinated ways: training people, developing scientific research, and carrying out technical work. The program has laboratories equipped to develop projects in assistive technologies, biomechanics, health informatics, materials, and biomaterials in three research areas: health technology assessment, bioengineering, and health informatics. The program maintains national and international partnerships with hospitals, research institutes, companies, associations of people with disabilities, universities, and government agencies. The master’s and doctoral programs are opportunities to develop skills that make a difference in the job market and achieve success in the area of expertise with the necessary scientific and technological knowledge.

Goals

Main Goal
To contribute to the development and expansion of access to health technologies for the Brazilian population, acting in three coordinated ways: training people, developing scientific research, and carrying out technical work.

Specific Goals
In order to meet the three fronts of action described in the main goal, the specific goals are as follows:

  1. train master’s and doctoral students capable of creating innovative solutions through the integration of knowledge in areas related to health and technology, according to the profile of the graduate;
  2. develop scientific research applied to human health to create or improve relevant and accessible technologies for society;
  3. carry out technical work, ethically placing the expertise present in the program at the service of society with exemption and seriousness.

History

At the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná (PUCPR), and in other universities globally, the association of researchers in the fields of engineering and health sciences gave rise to inter- and transdisciplinary research. The first works developed in health technology originated from the old Department of Informatics that in the early 1990s, brought together undergraduate courses in computer engineering and computer science. In 1994, a movement started to include health informatics at PUCPR, which resulted in three processes: the creation of the medical informatics course in the medicine program; the implementation of a health informatics laboratory at Cajuru University Hospital; and, later, the inclusion of a research area in medical informatics in the Graduate Program in Applied Informatics (PPGIA), approved by CAPES in 1996.

In the meantime, the Rehabilitation Engineering Laboratory (LER) was created in 1995 with financial support from the university and the Bamerindus Foundation, whose focus was on technological solutions for sensory and neuromotor rehabilitation disorders. In 1999, the professors linked to these processes, all with a doctorate in biomedical engineering, formed the Health Technology Group, whose work volume and demand for services made it feasible to implement a new graduate program starting from the integration of these professors belonging to PPGIA with others in the health area. Upon maturing the idea, in 2002, the group structured the Graduate Program in Health Technology (PPGTS) proposal as a result of the technological health evolution within PUCPR, the institutional and community interest in this area, and being approved by CAPES in 2003 with a rating of 3. The first defense of the PPGTS master’s thesis took place in October 2004, and until the end of December 2018, 260 master’s defenses and 17 doctoral qualifications (called the Doctoral Dissertation Project – PTD) started in 2016. Data from December 2018 related to the alumni indicate that 08 masters trained at PPGTS became Ph.D.s in other programs, and 32 are currently in the Ph.D. program, 15 at PPGTS itself. This process became more significant as of 2012. Due to its interdisciplinary nature, the PPGTS was initially linked to two centers: the Biological and Health Sciences Center and the Exact and Technological Sciences Center. Due to the reorganization of the PUCPR structure in schools, as of 2012, the PPGTS became linked to the Polytechnic School; however, it keeps faculty professors from three schools: polytechnic, life sciences, and medicine. The students’ profiles are also characterized as multidisciplinary, with 70% historically coming from life sciences and medicine and 30% distributed in engineering and computer science. It is noteworthy that the integration of information technology and engineering with health is a worldwide trend, and it is emerging as one of the main fields of professional activity, both in the present and in the future, according to reports described in Forbes magazine (2012), CNN Money (2012), and Exame (2015).
During the first 10 years of its existence, the PPGTS underwent structural changes due to suggestions from CAPES’s annual institutional and triennial assessments while remaining faithful to the interdisciplinary perspective contained in the initial proposal. A major change took place in 2011, when PPGTS reorganized its structure of the concentration and research areas to adapt them to program reality at the time regarding its research projects and its faculty. This adjustment resulted in a single concentration area, health technology, with three research areas: bioengineering, health informatics, and health technology assessment. In 2013, this reorganization was completed while excluding old concentrations and research areas. The projects associated with them gradually migrated in 2011 and 2012 to the new research areas or were extinguished. With this structure, there has been a greater adherence of research projects to the research areas and production from professors and students. As a practical reflection of these restructuring actions, in 2013, the Human Motricity Laboratory (LaMH) was created to be a model laboratory in research dedicated to neuromuscular aspects, motor control, and human movement performance, supporting the bioengineering area and complementing the existing resources in the Rehabilitation Engineering Laboratory. In 2014, the proposal to include the doctoral level was submitted. This proposal was in line with the Institutional Pedagogical Plan (PPI) of August 2012 and directly related to PUC’s two strategic areas (biotechnology and health and information and communication technology – ICT). Thus, it responded to the institutional principles of entrepreneurship and innovation, internationality, and interdisciplinarity, which is the primary motivation and research goal at PPGTS. The doctoral program was opened in 2016 and has been proving the demand by the PPGTS graduate masters and other Curitiba programs and the region. Due to the planning presented to CAPES at the time of the doctorate’s opening and the absorption capacity of doctoral students by PPGTS professors, the entry of doctoral students has been monitored and sufficiently limited. In 2016, 18 Ph.D. students joined PPGTS, 10 of which were graduates from PPGTS. At the end of 2017, the program had a total of 25 doctoral students, 15 of whom had obtained their master’s degree in the program itself. At the end of 2020, it has 38 doctoral students, beyond PPGTS had formed its first 17 Ph.D.s.


PPGTS MISSION

 Contribute to the development of and expand access to health technologies for the Brazilian population, acting in a coordinated manner to educate graduate students to create innovative solutions through knowledge integration in areas related to health and technology, as well as in the development of scientific research applied to human health, aiming at the creation or improvement of relevant and accessible technologies for society. This involves carrying out technical work, using professional skills acquired in the program to serve society, and striving for ethics, impartiality, and seriousness.


 FUTURE VISION

PPGTS envisions to be recognized as a national referenced graduate program in health technology, ratifying its excellence and constant innovation in research, technologies, and human resource education.


GRADUATE PROFILE

At the end of their education, the PPGTS graduate students will be able to:

  • Conduct scientific research associating area knowledge related to technology and health with intellectual integrity while observing ethical aspects;
  • Expand their understanding of phenomena related to human health through the integrated application of concepts and techniques from areas related to technology and health with intellectual autonomy;
  • Develop innovative health technology solutions with creativity to identify opportunities and needs in society and with professionals from different areas.

DIDACTIC–PEDAGOGICAL STRUCTURE

The courses offered to support the program’s three research areas are related to the concentration area of health technology. Most of them enable interdisciplinary education.

The courses list offered by the program makes it possible for the student, together with the advisor, to choose the topic proposed as an object of investigation. The choice of the course will occur according to student research topic, his needs and background area, which can be in exact sciences, engineering, health, education, or correlated.

The scientific methodology course is considered essential for all master’s students, and that of biostatistics is recommended to everyone who will need statistical analysis in their research projects and to those who did not study statistics as an undergraduate student. The directed studies course also aims to develop specific topics related to the student’s thesis or dissertation, topics of relevance to public health, or scientific and technological development in health.

The master’s student can take up to three credits in directed studies and the doctoral student, another three credits.

Due to doctoral-level approval, starting in 2016, the courses began being offered in three cycles, a 4-month system, replacing the semiannual offer. The relationship between courses and research areas is distributed as follows:

Six courses were considered transversal (public health policy, methodologies and technology for information systems, mathematics for bio-scientists, acquisition and processing of medical images, directed studies, and biostatistics).

In order to anchor the health technology assessment area, six courses were established, with two exclusives (health technology assessment and qualitative research methods). Three of these are also related to the health informatics research area (health information retrieval, telepathology, digital microscopy and morphometry, and epidemiology) and one with the bioengineering line (instrumental techniques for analyzing biomaterials).

In order to anchor the bioengineering research area, seven courses were established, with five exclusives (biomedical signal acquisition and processing, motor control theory, muscle mechanics, biomechanics, and biomaterials). Two are also related to the health informatics line (assistive technologies in mobility and assistive technologies in alternative and augmentative communication) and one with the health technology assessment line (instrumental techniques for biomaterials analysis).

In order to anchor the health informatics research area, five courses were established, with two exclusives (health informatics and artificial intelligence applied to health). Four are related to the health technology assessment research area (health information retrieval, telepathology, digital microscopy and morphometry, and epidemiology), and two are related to bioengineering (assistive technologies in mobility and assistive technologies in alternative and augmentative communication).

The courses are taught to contribute to the graduate’s skill development. For this purpose, the competencies were divided into competence elements (CE), and each course must be responsible for some of them. The distribution of elements in the courses was carried out so that regardless of the research area, students can develop all three competencies.

When teaching their courses, professors establish the appropriate learning outcomes and teaching methods, usually incorporating active learning concepts and differentiated assessment. The ECs for each competence of the graduate are presented below:

  • EC1. Conduct scientific research associating knowledge from areas related to technology and health with intellectual integrity, observing ethical aspects:

EC1.1 Develop research questions;

EC1.2 Define the research’s theoretical framework;

EC1.3 Describe the state of art related to a research question;

EC1.4 Define an appropriate method to answer a research question;

EC1.5 Respect ethical aspects;

EC1.6 Critically discuss research results;

EC1.7 Complete based on research results;

EC1.8 Produce scientific documents with intellectual honesty;

 

  • EC2. Expand the understanding of phenomena related to human health through the integrated application of concepts and techniques in areas related to technology and health with intellectual autonomy:

EC2.1 Delimit the phenomenon to the investigated;

EC2.2 Take ownership of concepts from different knowledge areas;

EC2.3 Establish models integrating concepts and techniques;

EC2.4 Apply the scientific method;

EC2.5 Demonstrate intellectual autonomy;

EC2.6 Communicate scientific findings to society;

 

  • EC3: Develop innovative health technology solutions with creativity from the identification of opportunities and needs of society based on the dialogue with professionals from different areas;

EC3.1 Identify opportunities and needs;

EC3.2 Model a solution;

EC3.3 Assess a solution according to aspects relevant to the need (economic, security, usability aspects);

EC3.4 Communicate efficiently with professionals from different areas;

EC3.5 Cooperate productively with professionals from different areas.


ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

 

PPGTS is subordinate to the Polytechnic School and the Graduate Studies, Research, and Innovation Office at PUCPR. Internally, the program has the following organization:

Council: composed of permanent program professors; coordinators of undergraduate programs in computer engineering, electrical engineering, biomedical engineering, medicine, physiotherapy, nursing, and physical education; and student representatives from the master’s and doctoral programs.

Program Director: appointed by the Graduate Studies, Research, and Innovation Office.

Committees: Selection Committee, Scholarship Committee, Self-Assessment Committee, and Disclosure Committee.

PPGTS Council

PPGTS Council comprises all program’s permanent professors, by the directors of the undergraduate programs in computer engineering, electrical engineering, biomedical engineering, medicine, physiotherapy, nursing, and physical education, and by a student representative.

PPGTS Committees

PPGTS has several committees formed by professors to assist the program’s academic administration. Currently, there are three:

  • Self-Assessment Committee

Responsible for the program’s self-assessment process: students, professors, technical–administrative, and infrastructure, in addition to monitoring the graduates.

Claudia Maria Cabral Moro Barra (professor)

Marcia Regina Cubas (professor)

Percy Nohama (director)

  • Selection Committee

Responsible for the selection process for those entering the master’s and  doctoral programs.

Auristela Duarte de Lima Moser (professor)

Adriano Akira Ferreira Hino (professor)

Mauren Abreu de Souza (professor)

  • Disclosure Committee

Responsible for disseminating program information, both internally and to society in general.

Deborah Ribeiro Carvalho (professor)

Elisangela Ferretti Manffra (professor)

Paula Karina Hembecker (post-doc researcher)

Maraísa do Nascimento (student)

Murilo Rodrigues da Rocha (student)

  • Scholarship Committee

Responsible for the process of awarding scholarships and exemptions to those entering the master’s and doctoral programs.

Beatriz Luci Fernandes (professor)

Guilherme Nunes Nogueira Neto (president)

Sergio Ossamu Yoshii (professor)

Camila Santos Cristino (student)

Fernanda Broering Gomes Torres (student)

Gabriele Serur (student)

Percy Nohama (director)

Schedule

The program is from Monday to Friday. The courses will be offered in the morning and afternoon, from Monday to Friday, and depending on the research area, the student will attend classes on two or three mornings or afternoons.

The other schedules are for individual studies, interaction with the advisor(s), and carrying out the research project. Even with flexibility, it is necessary to dedicate study hours on the institution’s premises.

1. Research areas

Bioengineering

This research area deals with the application of engineering in human health concepts and methods, with an interdisciplinary focus. Research in this line can provide the development of new diagnostic or therapeutic methods and improve the understanding and evaluation of existing methods. The projects in this line focus on the following topics: medical imaging acquisition and processing, biomaterials and biocompatibility, rehabilitation engineering and assistive technologies, biomedical instrumentation, and biomechanical modeling and analysis of human motricity.

Professors:

  • Auristela Duarte de Lima Moser
  • Beatriz Luci Fernandes
  • Eduardo Mendonça Scheeren
  • Elisangela Ferretti Manffra
  • Guilherme Nunes Nogueira Neto
  • Mauren Abreu de Souza
  • Percy Nohama

2. Research area

Health technology assessment

This is dedicated to applying qualitative and quantitative methods for evaluating approaches, processes, and resources to monitor, preserve, and improve human beings’ health and quality of life. It examines the clinical, social, economic, ethical, and legal implications of technologies in health. This line’s projects focus on assessing and applying methodologies to support decision making in health, technologies in functional health, and technologies in neurosurgery and rehabilitation.

Professors:

  • Adriano Akira Ferreira Hino
  • Auristela Duarte De Lima Moser
  • Claudia Maria Cabral Moro Barra
  • Deborah Ribeiro Carvalho
  • Elisangela Ferretti Manffra
  • Marcia Regina Cubas
  • Percy Nohama
  • Sergio Ossamu Ioshii

3. Research area

Informatics in health 

This aims to develop, apply, and improve techniques, methods, and computer systems in the health area. It involves information systems, decision support, databases, artificial intelligence, standardization and system integration, telemedicine, indicators, education, bioinformatics, electronic patient records, and epidemiological analysis. The projects in this area focus on developing knowledge representation and discovery techniques, process modeling in health systems, health information systems, nursing terminology, record standards, and care indicators in treating patients with neoplasms, medical ontologies, and assistive technologies.

Professors:

  • Adriano Akira Ferreira Hino
  • Claudia Maria Cabral Moro Barra
  • Deborah Ribeiro Carvalho
  • Marcia Regina Cubas
  • Sergio Ossamu Ioshii

PUCPR is a university that strives to be a world-class university. Thus, numerous actions have been strongly encouraged, including the following:

Courses in English at the undergraduate and graduate levels: PPGTS has been offering at least one course in English per year since 2017, the year in which the course of electrical stimulation in rehabilitation was taught from the bioengineering line in English. As of 2019, the offer was expanded to two courses, now with motor control, also in the bioengineering area. For 2020, we seek to offer the course 3D scanning & thermal images in English, and in the following years, it is expected that at least 50% of the courses will be offered in English.

Student mobility: In 2018, PPGTS provided a research internship for four doctoral students: Mariana de Mello Gusso Espínola, with a PDSE/CAPES scholarship at Yale University, USA (co-supervised by Prof. Dr. Hal Blumenfeld); Denilsen C. Gomes at the University of Porto, Portugal (co-supervised by Prof. Dr. Paulino Artur de Sousa); Yohan Gumiel at the University of Rennes 1, France (co-supervised by Prof. Dr. Vicent Claveau); and Lucas de Oliveira, also at the University of Rennes 1, France (co-supervised by Prof. Dr. Vicent Claveau). In addition, four students participated in international conferences with paper presentations.

Professor mobility: In 2018, five of the 12 professors participated in international conferences funded by PUCPR resources and by development agencies. Moreover, professors came for a technical visit in 2018. PPGTS received professors and researchers from universities in the program and carried out research missions with joint projects and activities in the advanced seminars: Profs. Geraint Ellis, Ruth Hunter, and Sara Monica Moutinho Barbosa de Melo from Queen’s University in Belfast (UK); Prof. Geoff Green from Sheffield Hallam University; Jonna Monaghan and Anne McCusker from Belfast Healthy Cities; Dermot O’Kane from the Belfast City Council; and Stephen Wood from the Belfast Department of Infrastructure. In 2019, PPGTS received professors Drs. Maurício Kugler from Nagoya Institute of Technology – NITech, Japan; and Dr. Marcio Vechio, Argentine vascular surgeon and specialist in phlebology and lymphology, from the International Society of Lymphology.

Double degree: PUCPR’s international relations sector, together with PPGTS, formalized a double degree agreement at the master’s level in the health informatics area with the University of Girona. In 2018, however, there were still no students enrolled in the double degree program.

Aiming to expand internationalization, this program is intended to increase the number of courses offered in English and attract postgraduate students from abroad to take part in the PPGTS programs while, on the other hand, expanding doctoral candidates’ exchanges in a sandwich internship (in 2018, four doctoral students completed) in laboratories and programs and with internationally renowned researchers. Simultaneously, PPGTS faculty are prepared to work in joint programs abroad and bring visiting professors and researchers to teach courses and conduct co-supervising of PPGTS students.

FUNCTIONAL INTERFACE PROPOSAL FOR THE PREVENTION OF NASAL INJURIES IN NEWBORNS SUBMITTED TO NON-INVASIVE VENTILATION 

Team: Débora de Fátima Camillo Ribeiro (doctoral student), Prof. Dr. Percy Nohama (advisor), Profa. Dra. Beatriz Luci Fernandes (co-advisor)

 

Introduction: Nasal injury resulting from the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) through binasal prongs is a widespread adverse event in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and produces drastic consequences for the newborn (NB). This event increases morbidity and mortality, prolongs hospitalization time, and raises treatment costs. Objective: To develop a functional interface to prevent nasal injuries in NBs submitted to NIV. Method: The study was divided into seven stages: (i) evaluation of the incidence and severity of nasal injury resulting from the use of short binasal prongs in a public hospital in the metropolitan region of Curitiba – PR; (ii) analysis of the effects of one, three, five, 10, and 20 sterilizations on the hardness of short binasal prongs from different models; (iii) randomized clinical trial between new nasal prongs and masks in the prevention of nasal injury; (iv) evaluation of the anatomical characteristics of 3,000 NBRs born or hospitalized in three hospitals of Campo Largo – PR; (v) development of a functional interface; (vi) mechanical and thermal characterization of the functional interface; and (vii) validation of the new interface employing a clinical simulator and a clinical trial with NBRs submitted to NIV in the NICU of a public hospital in Curitiba. Expected outcome: It is expected that NIV’s new functional interface for neonatology will be developed, which will be capable of preventing nasal injuries in neonates requiring this ventilatory support. Moreover, this will contribute to the improvement of the technical assistance provided to these newborns, reduce hospitalization time, and reduce public expenses for the treatment of comorbidities related to a nasal injury.


PROPOSAL TO CREATE A NEW SCALE OF SPASTICITY EVALUATION BASED ON MECHANOMIOGRAPHIC SIGNALS

Team: Elgison da Luz dos Santos (doctoral student), Prof. Dr. Percy Nohama (advisor), Prof. Dr. Eddy Krueger (co-advisor – UEL)

Introduction: Spasticity is a common disorder in people with upper motor neuron injury. The Ashworth Modified Scale (AMS) is the best-known assessment to measure this impairment’s levels, but it is subjective. Previous research has concluded that mechanomyography (MMG) presents a correlation with spasticity levels determined by AMS. Objective: To develop a scale for quantitative assessment of spasticity using mechanomiographic signals. Method: The AMS evaluated the flexor and extensor muscle groups of the knee and elbow. Simultaneously, the MMG signals were captured using a customized mechanomiograph. Time-domain processing was chosen, using the absolute amplitude median (MMGamp). An algorithm was developed to correct the MMGamp values in a universal magnitude based on gravity (MMGG), which does not depend on the instrumentation used in data collection. Subsequently, adjustment equations for the MMGG values were obtained to determine the continuity and cut-off between the different proposed scale levels. Second-order linear and polynomial correlations were tested during the adjustment, with the latter showing more excellent reliability. In the scale-level descriptions, numerical sets were used for contemplation based on both the median and the minimum and maximum MMGG values from each EMA group. Partial results: 34 members (upper and lower) from 22 volunteers (39.91 ± 13.77 years) of both sexes were evaluated. From the equations’ design, a scale for quantitative spasticity assessment through mechanomyographic signals was developed, with six different levels and without overlapping MMGG values between the proposed groups. However, to improve the scale, data collection must include other factors that may influence the scale adjustment.


PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOMECHANICAL RESPONSES TO THE FATIGUE PROCESS IN A HIGH-PERFORMANCE SPORT: A STUDY APPLIED TO KARATE 

Team: Keith Mary de Souza Sato Urbinati (doctoral student), Prof. Dr. Percy Nohama (advisor), Eduardo Mendonça Scheeren (co-advisor)

Introduction: The fatigue process can generate necessary adaptations and differential neuromuscular responses, especially in high-performance sports such as karate. Objective: Investigate physiological responses, muscle recruitment, neuromuscular plasticity, and biomechanical patterns in fatigue induction protocol. Method: This study’s design presents three different experiments (EX): (1) validation and reproducibility of a specific karate test; (2) analysis of the motor strategy used to maintain speed under the validated fatigue induction protocol for punches; and (3) determine the central and peripheral contribution in the kinematic response and motor strategy under the validated fatigue induction protocol for punches. In EX1, eight volunteers were evaluated under the punching frequency test protocol (FSKT) (five series of 10 s of gyako zuki punches, followed by 10 s of passive rest). Speed analysis was performed in the full-body Vicon System biomechanical model. The biochemical variables were analyzed before, immediately after, and 24 hours after the FSKT test. In EX2, 16 volunteers were evaluated in the FSKT test with fatigue induction (30 s of an active interval with deep jumps). The same model was used as in EX1. For EX3, six athletes from the national karate team will be evaluated. CVM test and pre- and post-FSKT electro-stimulation with fatigue induction will be performed using the same biomechanical and biochemical models of EX1. Partial results: EX1 presented adequate speed reproducibility. In EX2, there was an increase in biochemical variables. There was a drop in the linear wrist speed, especially after series 3 (p<0.05), indicative of installing the fatigue process. Conclusion: The biomechanical model of EXs 1 and 2 is adequate for fatigue analysis.


MULTIMODAL STUDY OF VISUAL AND AUDITIVE AWARENESS PERCEPTION USING EEG, fMRI, AND PUPILOMETRY

Team: Mariana de Mello Gusso Espinola (doctoral student), Prof. Dr. Percy Nohama (advisor), Hal Blumenfeld (co-advisor – Yale University – USA)

 

Introduction: The techniques for the exploration of brain functions have temporal or spatial limitations. Among the available modalities are functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalogram (EEG), and pupillometry, which show potentiality in brain studies. However, there are no studies on the integration among them. A multimodal study is essential for combining the information collected in the search for a reliable explanation of the conscious perception phenomena, assisting in future research on the feasibility of using assistive technologies as alternative and expanded communication. Objective: To investigate the mechanisms of visual and auditory conscious perception through a new multimodal technique of fMRI, EEG, and pupillometry. Method: This study will be conducted with healthy individuals at Yale University’s neuroimaging laboratory (study already approved by Yale’s ethics committee). Participants will be submitted to conscious perception assessment using an auditory and visual stimulation protocol. While the protocol is applied, EEG, fMRI, and pupillometry tests will be performed. The results will be compared to find the correlations among the three examination methods and the markers that indicate that conscious perception is occurring. Expected results: It is expected that correlations among the three study methods and auditory and visual conscious perception will be found. Thus, in tracing new parameters for their assessment, biological markers will be found that can serve as a basis for identifying the presence of people’s conscious perception who have an inability to express themselves conventionally (through speech), such as those with cerebral palsy, disorders of the autistic spectrum, microcephaly.


SYNCHRONOUS CONTROL FOR HYBRID ORTHOSIS

Team: Maira Ranciaro (doctoral student), Prof. Dr. Guilherme Nunes Nogueira Neto (advisor), Prof. Dr. Percy Nohama (co-advisor)

 

Introduction: Assistive technologies have been proposed for the locomotion of individuals with spinal cord injury. One of the alternatives consists of active or hybrid orthoses. Objective: To investigate the remainder of functional movements in paraplegic individuals with spinal cord injury from a hybrid assisted lower limb strategy, which associates the motor effects of an active orthosis and a functional electrical stimulation system (FES). Method: There will be a simulation of the system by means of the Simscape and Simulink software as well as the application of the in vivo simulated controller on the orthosis. The orthosis has direct current motor actuators placed in the joints, with a degree of freedom and a knee decoupling system for FES’s application. In the cycle of a balance of the gear, the control of each joint will be performed while employing the proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID) in a closed-loop with angular feedback. The limb synchronization control is responsible for driving controls of both joints, the knee, and the hip through a state machine, which is also responsible for technology exchange between orthosis and FES for the knee swing phase. For the synchronization of both members, a second state machine will be implemented. Partial results: PID application has proved effective; however, mechanical adjustments are needed for new tests. Regarding simulation, the controller, electronic components, and simple mechanics of a joint were tested, with the next step being to import the mechanics of the orthosis for the simulation of the controller with the orthosis, the simulation of the FES in parallel with the orthosis and later, and the controller performing the alternation of technologies.


FEASIBILITY OF PROTOCOL JOBS FOR TRAINING THE MOVEMENT OF RISING AND SITTING WITH THE USE OF ACTIVE ORTHESIS FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH SPINAL INJURY

Team: Giullia Paula Rinaldi Santos (doctoral student), Prof. Dr. Guilherme Nunes Nogueira Neto (advisor)

 

Introduction: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe trauma and can be disabling, with physical, psychological, social, and economic consequences for the affected individual. Additionally, unexpected changes in the individual’s daily routine commonly compromise motor functions, affecting both the family and society. Therefore, studies that involve assistive technology development that helps promote motor functions, such as orthoses and exoskeletons, can provide benefits in terms of mobility and autonomy of the individual, allowing an assisted locomotion with stability and security. Objective: To investigate the behavior of movements performed in the sitting-orthostatic position transitions of healthy individuals and those with spinal cord injuries using the hybrid orthosis. Method: This is experimental research of a quantiqualitative nature, permeated with an investigation of bibliographic research, field research with data analysis, and results. Inclusion criteria: Male gender, between 20–40 years old, active, and individuals with complete traumatic spinal cord injury for more than 6 months with postural control. Exclusion: The sensation of joint discomfort and pain and inability to control hip postural and cognitive alteration. Procedures: Monitoring by kinemetry and MMG. Expected Results: It is expected to reduce difficulties for people with LM when performing everyday activities such as sitting and standing up, increasing independence in day-to-day actions, and better adaptation to domestic and work tasks. It is also expected to bring a significant scientific contribution to the assessment of health technology.


VIABILITY AND RELIABILITY IN THE USE OF VIBROARTROGRAPHY FOR PATELLAR CHONDROMALACIA DETECTION

Team: Camilo Santos Cristino (master’s student), Prof. Dr. Guilherme Nunes Nogueira Neto (advisor)

 

Introduction: Patellar Chondromalacia is a pathology that has as its characteristic the softening of the patellar cartilage and, later, its degeneration. In some individuals, the main symptoms are pain and crepitations in the anterior region of the knee. These symptoms make some daily activities difficult to perform, such as climbing stairs, running, jumping, and squatting. If chondromalacia is not appropriately treated, it can worsen to osteoarthritis, becoming a surgical case. Magnetic resonance imaging is one of the most used and most accurate ways to diagnose this lesion, but it is expensive and has radiation, thus preventing more regular clinical follow ups. Vibroarthrography (VAG) is a tool that has been standing out in research involving chondral injuries because it can analyze the vibroacoustic frequencies emitted by the joint surface during movement, and with cartilage, wear increases bone friction. Objective: To analyze the viability of using VAG as a tool for detecting and classifying Patellar Chondromalacia. Method: 25 individuals aged 25–50 will be evaluated. There will be 15 patients with Patellar Chondromalacia (Grade 1, 2, and 3), five patients with Osteoarthrosis, and five people without any chondral injury, constituting a control group. The acquisition of the VAG signal will be performed with two accelerometry sensors positioned 1 cm above the apex and another in the patella’s medial region. The assessment of the Patellofemoral joint will be performed in an open kinetic chain in the bending/extension movement in the sitting position. Expected results: It is estimated that the VAG will be useful in evaluating and classifying chondral changes in the patellofemoral joint, becoming a useful tool both in the diagnosis and in the rehabilitation process of the Patellar Chondromalacia.


APPLICATION ON KINESIOLOGY KNOWLEDGE IN LIBRAS: A HEALTH EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

Team: Alexsander Pimentel (Master’s student), Prof. Dr. Percy Nohama (advisor)

 

Introduction: Technology, be it information or communication, provides tools that make it possible to support education and, therefore, the teaching and learning process and interconnection with the world. Problems in learning technical–scientific terms of kinesiology in physical education programs have been found; since they are unknown to deaf students, they access the Internet to get visuospatial material that can help them in the assimilation and understanding of the programmatic content of their respective degrees. Objective: From this perspective, this project aims to create a standard lexicon in Brazilian Sign Language (Libras), looking at the international anatomical terminology from data collection of the signs used by deaf students and alumni, as well as Translator Interpreter of Brazilian Sign Language (TILS) acting in the academic field. Methodology: The methodology used was qualitative, consisting of three phases, each one divided into stages, making a total of 13. In the first phase, exploratory research stages were developed: state-of-the-art research, selection, and composition of teams 1 and 2 (investigative and development). The second phase focused on the development of the Interactive Libra Motion and Image Application (AMILI). In the third phase, the development and application of questionnaires (1 and 2), the collection and cataloging of the signs in Libras, and the determination of the criteria for selecting the signs of the chosen terms took place. The records in videos, images, and GIFs of the terms from the 17 chosen signs, the validation of these materials by the deaf community via Whatsapp, and the analysis of videos, images, and GIFs of the developed application. According to the physical education program and the kinesiology course program, 106 terms were selected, 53 referring to the basic terminology of physical education and 53 referring to the basic terminology of kinesiology movements to ascertain the knowledge of deaf students and TILS signs in Libras. Results: As a result of the 17 signs questioned, only one sign chosen by team 1 was added to the iconicity suggested by one of the subjects; however, for the others, acceptance and validation were obtained, and therefore, they were included in the developed software. This software is an educational technology that will support those directly and indirectly involved in the teaching–learning process of deaf students related to kinesiology in the physical education program. In the future, it is intended to expand the software with the contents and technical terms from the other higher education programs in the field of health, thus developing a media-signaled repertoire in movement in Libras.


ASSISTIVE GAME TO HELP IN THE LITERACY PROCESS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

Team: Maicris Fernandes (Master’s student), Prof. Dr. Percy Nohama (advisor), Prof. Dr. Fabio Vinicius Binder (co-advisor)

 

Introduction: Children who manifest autism spectrum disorders (TEA) poorly develop in communication and social interaction areas, which leads them to face literacy difficulties. To assist this process, digital assistive technologies can be used. Objective: This research aims to evaluate the potentiality of using digital games as assistive technologies to support the literacy process of children who manifest TEA. Method: This research was conducted in a school in Curitiba with four special education specialists whose students are literate, using the ABACADA method. The study was divided into two main phases: development and validation. In the development phase, the ABACADA method’s activities were assessed to support the modeling of a digital game. The game’s objectives were defined and detailed with a focus on meeting the special needs of children with TEA, resulting in the creation of the game. The validation phase initially included training the participants in using the game with a view to its subsequent application.

The participants answered a pre-intervention questionnaire, and following this, they carried out game sessions with students in an individual and supervised way. Finally, a post-intervention questionnaire was administered to the participants to gather their impressions about the developed game. The collected data were analyzed in order to verify whether the game meets the research objectives. Results: From the survey of the ABACADA method’s activities, the game TEAbá was developed, with all its features focused on meeting the needs of children with TEA. TEAbá was applied in 36 sessions, and the results obtained by the participants’ observations indicate that 91.7% of the students were engaged in the game; 81.8% of the students showed that they liked the game; and 30.3% showed interest in continuing to play. Based on the evaluation of the participants’ experts in the area, the game TEAbá was evaluated as useful as an assistive tool to help in the process of literacy of children with TEA. Conclusions: From the application of the digital game developed in this research, TEAbá, it was possible to infer that digital games are potentially useful assistive tools to help in the literary process of children with TEA. Furthermore, through the administration of questionnaires, it can also be verified that the volunteer educators of the research know the concepts that involve the use of assistive technologies. Finally, it was possible to obtain, from the qualitative information collected, quantitative data on the involvement and acceptance of the game by autistic players.

PPGTS-specific laboratories include the Rehabilitation Engineering Laboratory, the Human Motricity Laboratory, the Informatics Applied to Health Laboratory, and the Biomaterials and Materials Laboratory.

 

Rehabilitation Engineering Laboratory (LER)

LER, created in 1995, is a historic landmark of the Polytechnic School, being the first exclusively research laboratory formalized at the Polytechnic (former Center for Exact Sciences and Technology). Electronic circuits, computerized systems, and applicable mechanical devices are developed, mainly as assistive technologies aimed at mobility and alternative and expanded communication for people with sensory and neuromotor disabilities. It has electronic instrumentation infrastructure, including digital oscilloscopes, true RMS multimeters, programmable function generators, programmable power supplies, a spectrum analyzer, an electromagnetic radiation meter, a programmable digital RF generator, data acquisition cards, and software licenses for LabView, Arduino, and Raspberry. The laboratory also has biomedical technology infrastructure, including laser therapy equipment, an electrocardiograph, an electromyograph, a mechanomyograph, an oximeter, a blood pressure meter, neuromuscular electrical stimulators, a force platform, treadmills, and a partial weight suspension system. In addition, it has updated its computing infrastructure (laptops and desktops) and wired and wireless networks that are suitable for the projects’ development in health technology and, mainly, assistive technologies. Finally, it has a set of electronic and mechanical components for implementing prototypes.

 

Human Motricity Laboratory (LaMH)

LaMH, created in 2013, is intended for the study of human motricity. It has signal acquisition systems, a 4-channel electromyograph with an accelerometer, load cells, a force platform for capturing forces and moments in three directions, and a mobile platform for generating disturbances with the possibility of movement in two directions controlled by a CNC system. The laboratory is equipped with a 3D human motion capture and analysis system with seven infrared cameras and two video cameras, in addition to the signal acquisition system, high-capacity computer, and software for measurement and analysis. The cameras are arranged in a structure that allows for modifying their spatial configuration to carry out different experiments. Two more computers with adequate processing capacity, a 52” TV, Kinect sensor, digital game console, two tablets, and consumables such as electrodes and reflective markers are available in the laboratory.

 

Computer Laboratory Applied to Health (LAIS)

LAIS was created in 1998 and is designed to develop projects aimed at specialist systems and decision support, electronic patient records, electronic health records, use of wireless communication technologies and the Internet of Things, health education and use of artificial intelligence, as well as data mining for medical–administrative applications and natural language processing. It has the adequate computational infrastructure to meet PPGTS demands. In this space, there are also four individual cabins

shared by students, post-doctoral students, and visiting professors, in addition to being used as a place of study by PPGTS students.

 

Biomaterial and Material Laboratory (LABIOMA)

This is the most recent PPGTS laboratory, resulting from a donation from the Grade Institute of Basic Sciences. It allows for the manufacture of biomaterials and their microstructural characterizations and development and the manufacture of devices and mechanical systems applied to medical devices. As for equipment, the lab has a precision scale, magnetic and mechanical stirrers, ultrasonic bath, metallographic microscope, biological magnifier, programmable ovens of 1600° C and 800° C, programmable crystallization oven of 1200° C, ball mill, Y mixer, programmable bacteriological oven, 200° C oven, digital pH meter, sander, and polisher.

In addition to these laboratories, PPGTS has more than 20 associated laboratories inside and outside of PUCPR.

Faculty

Adriano Akira Ferreira Hino

Professor Akira began his teaching career at PUCPR in 2014 and joined the PPGTS in 2017. With a Bachelor’s, Master's and PhD degrees in Physical Education, he develops studies aimed to understand the adoption of healthy behaviors , with a main focus on environmental correlates of physical activity throughout life. Member of the Brazilian Society of Physical Activity and Health and International Society of Physical Activity and Health, professor Akira works on research projects of national and international cooperation focused on the promotion of physical activity. He has more than 50 articles published in national journals in international journals. His main research areas of interest: epidemiology, public health, correlates of physical activity, evaluation of physical activity programs, urban health.

Auristela Duarte Lima Moser

Auristela holds a degree in physiotherapy from the Federal University of Pernambuco (1977), a master’s degree in education from the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná (1997), and a Ph.D. in production engineering from the Federal University of Santa Catarina (2005). She is currently a professor at the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná and an advisor for the Graduate Program in Health Technology at PUCPR. She has experience mainly in physiotherapy research, worker health, spine, ergonomics, and functionality. Her main areas of interest: physical therapy and corresponding areas, functional evaluation and classification systems, functional kinetic diagnostics, aging and functional capacity.

Beatriz Luci Fernandes

Beatriz holds a degree in chemical engineering from UNICAMP (1988), a master’s degree in mechanical engineering from UNICAMP (1992), a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from UNICAMP (1999) on bioengineering, and a post-doctorate in biomedical engineering from UTFPR (2010). She is currently an associate professor at PUCPR, serves on the Graduate Program in Health Technology, and holds the position of Research and Development Director at the Grade Institute of Basic Sciences. She has experience in biomedical engineering, focusing on biocompatible materials, working mainly on the following topics: natural and artificial biomaterials; endoprostheses development, implants, and orthoses; and wear analysis on joint endoprostheses.

Claudia Maria Cabral Moro Barra

Claudia holds a degree in computer engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná (1991), a master’s degree in electrical engineering from the State University of Campinas (1994), and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of São Paulo (2003). She is currently a professor at the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná. She has experience in biomedical engineering and computer science, focusing on health informatics and working mainly on the following topics: health informatics, health information systems (SIS), electronic health registration (RES), natural language processing, and SIS assessment.

Deborah Ribeiro Carvalho

Deborah holds a degree in data processing from the Federal University of Parana (1979), a master’s degree in applied informatics from the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná (1999), a Ph.D. in applied informatics from the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná (2002), and a Ph.D. in high-performance computing from the Federal University of Rio Janeiro (COPPE) (2005). She is a professor at the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Graduate Program in Applied Technology in Health, and a collaborating professor in the Master’s in Information Management (UFPR) program. She has experience in computer science, working mainly on the following topics: data mining, knowledge acquisition, decision support, and discovered patterns post-processing.

Eduardo Mendonça Scheeren

Eduardo holds a degree in physical education from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (1997), a master’s degree in human movement sciences from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (2002), and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering and industrial informatics from the Federal Technological University of Paraná (2011). He is currently an associate professor from the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná. He has experience in physical education, working mainly on the following topics: electromyography, mechanomyography, electrical stimulation, and muscle fatigue.

Elisangela Ferretti Manffra

Full Professor at PUCPR and member of the Health Technology Graduate Program - PPGTS, since 2004. Graduated in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from the Federal Technological University of Paraná (1996), Master in Physics from USP (1998) and PhD in Sciences Universität Wuppertal (2002). She has advised 32 master's dissertations and published numerous papers in periodicals. She is a member of the Brazilian Society of Biomedical Engineering, associate editor of the journals Physical Therapy in Movement and Research on Biomedical Engineering. Her research is related to the Motor Control of people with neurological disorders, especially stroke, applying Biomechanics in the scientific and clinical contexts. She has been dedicated to the development and assessment of motor rehabilitation technologies such as serious digital games to aid Physiotherapy. Her main research areas of interest: motor control, biomechanics, assistive technologies, motor rehabilitation, neurological disorders, stroke.

Guilherme Nunes Nogueira Neto

Adjunct professor at PUCPR. Bachelor’s in Computer Engineering (PUCPR – 2001), Master's degree in Electrical Engineering and Industrial Informatics (Federal Technological University of Paraná – UTFPR – 2003) and a PhD in Electrical Engineering (Campinas State University – UNICAMP – 2013). Vice-coordinator of the PUCPR Assistive Technology Research Group. Former member of the Area Access Committee of Computer Engineering for ENADE. Reviewer of the following journals: Research on Biomedical Engineering, PLOSONE and Biomedical Signal Processing and Control. Fisioterapia em Movimento associate editor. More than 80 journal, conference, patents and chapter publications. Currently, teaches the following disciplines: Computer Architecture and Organization, Digital Signal Processing, Operations Management, Industrial Automation and Functional Electrical Stimulation. His main research interests: Biomedical Instrumentation, Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation, Biomedical Signal Processing, Artificial Motor Control and Assistive Technologies.

Marcia Regina Cubas

Nurse. Master in Public Health from the ENSP (Fiocruz). PhD in Nursing, Department of Nursing in Collective Health, School of Nursing, USP. Post-doctorate at the Porto Nursing School (CNPq scholarship). Researcher at CNPq (PQ2). Adjunct Professor of PUCPR, working in the Graduate Program in Health Technology, Polytechnic School; and in Graduate in Nursing, from the School of Life Sciences. He was a member of the Research Ethics Committee of PUCPR. Member of the Research Committee of ABEn - national (2007-2013) and the Commission for Systematization of Nursing Practice (2007-2016). Delegate of ABEn-national on the Steering Committee of the APS Research Network. Member of the Joint Commission ABEn/PR and Coren/PR of Systematization of Nursing Practice since 2016. Member of the Araucária Foundation’s Advisory Committee in health since 2013. Associate Editor of the Journal of Nursing School of the University of São Paulo since 2018. Vice-president of ABEn–Paraná district (2017-2020). Her main research areas of interest: Collective Health and Health Technologies, especially in the themes: terminologies in nursing; nursing process and social epidemiology.

Mauren Abreu de Souza

Professor at PUCPR, teaching Physics and Biophysics classes at the undergraduate courses (since 2011). At the Graduate Program on Health Technology – PPGTS, she is responsible for the medical imaging courses (since 2018). Mauren has a PhD in Medical Physics and Bioengineering at the University College London (2009), and a Master degree in Electrical Engineering (emphasis: Biomedical engineering) at the Federal Technological University of Paraná – UTFPR (2002). She has a degree in Physics (Bachelor's degree and Teaching physics) at the Federal University of Paraná – UFPR (1999). Her experience ranges in the field of Biomedical Engineering, mainly focusing on 3D multimodality imaging, such as: three-dimensional image reconstruction using computer tomographic (CT) images and magnetic resonance images (MRI); infrared thermal images; rapid prototyping; optical tomography; biomedical metrology and 3D modelling (from photogrammetry and 3D scanning systems). Her main research areas of interest: 3D multimodality imaging, biomedical metrology and 3D modelling (from photogrammetry and 3D scanning systems), infrared thermography images, 3D image reconstruction (from CT and NMRI) and medical imaging fusion.

Percy Nohama

Current head of the Graduate Program in Health Technology - PPGTS. Full professor at PUCPR and UTFPR (emeritus). Researcher at CNPq (PQ-1D) since 1998. Graduated in Electronics from the Federal Technological University of Paraná (1986), Master (1992) and PhD (1997) in Electrical Engineering (Biomedical Engng.) from the State University of Campinas - UNICAMP. Vice-coordinator of the advisory committee of the Araucária Foundation, Ad Hoc Reviewer of CNPq, CAPES, FINEP, among other foundations which support research on Brazil. Member of the Advisory Board of the Brazilian Society of Biomedical Engineering. Evaluator of the Ministry of Education for courses and institutions of higher education. More than 400 publications in national and international journals and conferences, 5 patents and 9 softwares deposited in INPI. Supervison of more than 80 masters and doctors in Biomedical Engineering and Health Technology. His main research areas of interest: biomedical sensors and instrumentation, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, alternative and augmentative communication, artificial motor control and assistive technologies.

Sergio Ossamu Ioshii

Sergio holds a degree in medicine from the Federal University of Paraná (1983) and a Ph.D. in the postgraduate program in medicine from Mie University, Japan (1993). He is a full orofessor at the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná (PUCPR), an associate professor at the Federal University of Paraná, and a permanent professor in the Health Technology Graduate Program at PUCPR. He has experience in medicine (focusing on gastrointestinal and liver pathology, oncogenesis, prognostic factors in cancer, tissue repair, and healing) and in information technology and health management (focusing on management by indicators, electronic records in health, and morphometry).

Courses

3D Modelling & Infrared Images

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Principles of Stereo-Vision. Introduction to Three-Dimensional Technologies. Principles of 3D Scanning Systems. Using specific 3D software for Image Registration and Alignment. Infrared/Thermal Imaging. Clinical Applications of Thermography.

Bibliography

  1. Ashworth, J.; Brasher, K. (editors). 3D Reconstruction: Methods, Applications and Challenges. Nova Science Publishers, Inc, New York, 2014.
  2. Bronzino, J.D. Medical Devices and Systems, the Biomedical Engineering Handbook, 3rd ed. CRC Press, USA, 2006. CREAFORM; Body, Creaform Digitizers (CBD). Available in: http://www.creaform3d.com/.
  3. de Souza, M.A.; Sanches, I.J.; Gamba, H.R. 3D Medical Reconstruction: Overview and Case Studies, in: “3D Reconstruction: Methods, Applications and Challenges”, edited by Ashworth, J., Brasher, K. Nova Science Publishers, Inc, New York, 2014.
  4. Diakides, N.A.; Bronzino, J.D., (editors). Medical Infrared Imaging. CRC Press, USA, 2008.
  5. Kateb, Babak; Yamamoto, Vicky; Yu, Cheng; Grundfest, Warren; Gruen, John Peter Infrared thermal imaging: a review of the literature and case report. NeuroImage. 47 Supplement 2, T154-T162, 2009.
  6. Ring, E F JF.J.; Ammer, K. Infrared thermal imaging in medicine. Physiological Measurement. 33(3), R33-R46, 2012.
  7. Robson, S. Lecture Notes on Introduction to Photogrammetry. Department of Geomatic Engineering, UCL, 2015.
  8. Souza, M.A. Acquiring accurate head surfaces of newborn infants for optical tomography using digital photogrammetry, Ph.D. Thesis. UCL, London, 2009. Available in: http://www.medphys.ucl.ac.uk/research/borl/docs/mabreudesouza.pdf.

Artificial Intelligence

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Fundamentals and concepts of artificial intelligence (AI). Knowledge engineering. Knowledge-based systems and knowledge acquisition techniques. Knowledge representation. Expert systems: concepts, structures, tools for implementation, and evaluation methodologies. Some AI techniques with application in the health areas, such as data mining, text mining, and feelings mining.

Bibliography

  1. Rezende, Solange Oliveira. Sistemas inteligentes: fundamentos e aplicações. Barueri: Manole. ISBN 85-204-1683-7. 525 p, 2005.
  2. Russell, Stuart J.; Norvig, Peter. Inteligência artificial. Elsevier, Rio de Janeiro. ISBN 85-352-1177-2, 2004.
  3. Steinbach, Michael; Tan, Pang-Ning; Kumar, Vipin. Introduction to Data Mining, 2018. Pearson ed.

Assistive Technologies in Augmentative and Alternative Communication

(3 credits/45 hours in classroom)

Syllabus: Concepts, characteristics, categories, projects, and products of assistive technologies (ATs); ATs and rehabilitation engineering, universal design, cybernetics, and ergonomics of software; International Classification of Functionality, anatomy and physiology of sensory and neural systems, ATs for blind and deaf people, ATs for sensory deficits, and AT in augmentative and alternative communication.

Bibliography

  1.  Anson, K. Alternative Computer Access: A Selection Guide. F. A. Davis, Philadelphia, USA, 1997.
  2.  Barfield, ; Furness III, T. Virtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design. Oxford University Press, USA, p. 348-414.
  3.  Bastos, Maria Inês de Souza Ribeiro. Inclusão digital e social de pessoas com deficiência: textos de referência para monitores de telecentros. UNESCO, Brasília, DF, 2007.
  4.  Bersch, Rita Tecnologia assistiva. [S.l.]. Available in: http://www.assistiva.com.br.
  5.  Cook, Albert M.; Hussey, Susan. Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice. Mosby, 2nd, ISBN-10: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/0323006434.
  6.  Galvão Filho, Teófilo. Tecnologia Assistiva para Uma Escola Inclusiva: apropriação, demandas e perspectivas. Tese (Doutorado em Educação) – Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, 2009. Available in: http://www.galvaofilho.net/tese.htm ).
  7.  Galvão Filho, Teófilo. In: Conexões: educação, comunicação, inclusão e interculturalidade, 1st ed eds. Machado, G.J.C., Sobral, M.N. ed. Orgs: http://www.galvaofilho.net/assistiva.pdf. Redes Editora, Porto Alegre, p. 207-235, 2009. Available in A tecnologia Assistiva: de que se trata?
  8. Journal Articles and Conference Proceedings papers Assistive Technologies.

Assistive Technologies in Mobility

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Concepts, characteristics, categories, projects, and products of assistive technologies (ATs) in the motor area; ATs and rehabilitation engineering, ergonomics, and TA product development for locomotion and prehension; anatomy and physiology of the systems of locomotion and prehension, motor control, and artificial proprioception; and prostheses and orthoses.

Bibliography

  1. Barfield, W.; Furness III, T. Virtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design. Oxford University Press, USA, p. 348-414.
  2. Bersch, R. Tecnologia assistiva. [S.l.]. Available in: http://www.assistiva.com.br.
  3. Cook, A.M.; Hussey, S. Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice. Mosby; 2ndedition, ISBN-10: 0323006434.
  4. Lazaro, J.J. Adapting PC for Disabilities. Addison-Wesley, USA, 1996.
  5. Journal articles and conference proceedings in Assistive Technologies.
  6. Mital, A.; Karwooski, W. Ergonomics in Rehabilitation. Taylor & Francis, London, 1988.
  7. Rice, Valerie J. Berg. Ergonomics in Health Care and Rehabilitation, 1st ed.. ISBN-10. Butterworth-Heinemann, 0750697148, 1998.
  8. Smith, R.V.; Leslie, J.H. Rehabilitation Engineering. CRC Press, FL, USA, 1990.
  9. Webster, J.G.; Cook, A.M.; Tompkins, W.J.; Vanderheiden, G.C. Electronic Devices for Rehabilitation. John Wiley & Sons, Great Britain, 1985.

Biological Phenomena Modelling

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom) 

Syllabus: This discipline is aimed at students and professionals in the areas of exact sciences, engineering, biological sciences, and health sciences. A strong point of the class is the integration between people from different areas. Mathematics must be perceived as an ally for the study of biological phenomena, such as the generation of action potentials in excitable cells, human postural control, and the spread of contagious diseases. The focus of the subject is modeling, not the phenomena themselves, and therefore, they will be chosen according to the research interests of the participants. The course should help the participant decipher the scientific findings obtained with the modeling techniques.

Bibliography

  1. Enderle, Physiological Modeling in ENDERLE, Blanchard, BRONZINO, Introduction to Biomedical Engineering. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, 2008.
  2. Gunawardena, Jeremy Models in biology: “accurate descriptions of our pathetic thinking”. BMC Biology. 12, 29, 2014.

Biomaterials

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Importance of biomaterials in the health sciences and biomedical engineering; types of biomaterials, their properties, and functionality; biometals; bioceramics; biopolymers; biocomposites; host response to the presence of a biomaterial; degradation of biomaterials and sub-products; superficial treatments of biomaterials; technical standards applicable to manufacturing; and characterization of biomaterials (ISO, ASTM, ABNT, and Good Manufacturing  Process)

Bibliography

  1. Agrawal, C.M.; Ong, J.L.; Appleford, M.R.; Mani, G. Introduction to Biomaterials: Basic Theory with Engineering Applications (Cambridge Texts in Biomedical Engineering), 1st ed. Cambridge University Press, 419 p, 2013.
  2. Askeland, D.W.; Wendelin, J. Ciência e engenharia dos Materiais, 2012. CENGAGE, 1st ed., 672 p.
  3. Callister, W.D. Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais: uma introdução. LTC, 8th ed., 724 p, 2012.
  4. Chen, Q.; Thouas, G. Biomaterials: A Basic Introduction, 1st ed. CRC Press, 736 p, 2014.
  5. Dowling, N.E. Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 4th ed. Prentice Hall, 960 p.
  6.  Garcia, A.; Spim, J.A.; Santos, C.A. Ensaios Dos Materiais. LTC, 2nd ed, 2012.
  1. Orefice, R.L.; Pereira, M.M.; Mansur, H.S. Biomateriais: fundamentos e aplicações. Cultura médica, 1st ed., 538 p, 2007.
  2. Ratner, B.D.; Hoffman, A.S. Biomaterials Science: an Introduction to Materials in Medicine, 3rd ed. Academic Press, 1573 p, 2012.
  3. Temenoff, J.S.; Mikos, A.G. Biomaterials: the Intersection of Biology and Materials Science, 1st ed. Prentice Hall, 504 p, 2008.
  4.  Williams, D., 2014. Essential Biomaterials Science (Cambridge Texts in Biomedical Engineering). Cambridge University Press, 1a ed., 762 p.

Biomedical Signals Acquisition and Processing

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Evaluation of biomedical signal acquisition systems used in scientific research, considering their components (sensors or transducers, signal conditioning systems, analog-digital converters) and the research needs (accuracy, resolution required). Implementation of signal processing methods in time and frequency domains for biomedical applications, among which the Fourier Transform and digital filtering deserve special mention.

Bibliography

  1. Pratt, William K. Digital Image Processing. Wiley, New York; Chichester, 1978.
  2. Russ, John C. The Image Processing Handbook, 4th CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2002. § Jain, Anil K. Fundamentals of digital image processing. Englewood, Cliffs. Prentice Hall, c1989. 569 p.
  3. Webb, Steve. The Physics of Medical Imaging. Institute of Physics Pub., 1988.
  1. Bruce, E.N. Biomedical Signal Processing and Signal Modeling. John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
  2. Haykin, Simon S.; Van Veen, Barry; Sinais e Sistemas Porto Alegre. Bookman, 2001. 668 p.
  3. Lathi, B.P. Sinais e Sistemas Lineares Porto Alegre. Bookman, 2007. 856 p.
  4. Mainardi, L.T.; Bianchi, A.M.; Cerutti, S. Digital Biomedical Signal Acquisition and Processing, In: Enderle J.D., Blanchard S.M., Bronzino, J.D. Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, 2nd ed. Elsevier.
  5. Mendes, A.; Rosario, P.P.; Metrologia e Incerteza de Medição.
  6. Rocha, Azevedo, Berger, Nascimento. Processamento de Sinais Biológicos. Available in Rocha: http://pgea.unb.br/~joaoluiz/pdf/adson-psb-capitulo.pdf.

Biomechanics

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Kinematic and kinetic analysis of human movement. PPGTS biomechanics study is intended for students with health backgrounds or in the area of exact sciences who wish or need to carry out theoretical–experimental analyses of human movement. Biomechanics is interdisciplinary, involving kinematic conventions, absolute spatial reference system, anthropometry, forces and moments of force, three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics, and kinesiological electromyography.

Bibliography

  1. Yamagughi, G.T. Dynamic Modeling of Musculosekeletal Motion: a Vectorized Approach for Biomechanical Analysis in Three Dimensions. Springer, Tempe, 2006.
  2. Journal articles related to the discipline and the students’ research topics.
  3. Winter, D.A. Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement. John Wiley & Sons, p. 4ª edição, New Jersey, 2009.
  4. Zatsiorsky, V. Kinematics of Human Motion, Human Kinetics Publishers, Llinois, 1998.
  5. Zatsiorsky, V. Kinetics of Human Motion, Human Kinetics Publishers, Llinois, 2002.

Biostatistics

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Introduction to biostatistics: importance and role in scientific research in health. Introduction to SPSS. Variable manipulation using SPSS. Descriptive statistics: variables; data verification; tabular presentation; graphical presentation; central tendency measures; dispersion measures; and normal curve. Probability: random experiment and sample space. Quality diagnostic test indexes: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy, false positive, and false negative probability. ROC curves. Sampling: sampling theory; calculation of the sample size for the different epidemiological studies; and types of samples. Statistical inference: point and interval estimation for means and proportions; hypothesis testing framework; p-value; tests for differences between means and proportions; parametric and non-parametric tests; and test selection.

Bibliography

  1. Arango, Hector Gustavo. Bioestatística teórica e computacional, 3rd ed. Rio de Janeiro Guanabara Koogan. ISBN 978-85-277-1943-8. Available online, 2009.
  2. Barbetta, Pedro Alberto. Estatística Aplicada às Ciências Sociais, 5th ed., rev. 340 p. (Didática) ISBN 85-328-0010-6, 2002.
  3. Bruni, Adriano Leal. SPSS aplicado à pesquisa Acadêmica, xiii. Atlas, São Paulo. ISBN 978-85-224-5485-3 (broch.), 244 p, 2009.
  4. de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes. Análise de dados em saúde. 3. ed. revisada e ampliada. Midiograf, Londrina. ISBN 978-85-903917-3-9 (broch.). 307 p, 2012.
  1. Field, Andy Descobrindo a estatística usando SPSS. Porto Alegre: Artmed, xix ISBN 978-85-363-1927-8 (broch.), 687 p. (Biblioteca Artmed. Métodos de pesquisa), 2009.
  2. Jekel, James F.; Elmore, Joann G.; Katz, David L. Epidemiologia, Bioestatística e medicina preventiva. Porto Alegre: Artmed. Biblioteca Artmed. Epidemiologia & Saúde Pública ISBN 85-363-0296-8 (broch). viii, 432 p, 2005.

Directed Studies

(1, 2, or 3 credits/15, 30, or 45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Analysis and production of methodologies for solving health problems through the application of knowledge, skills of research, and technique development, methods, and systems to model diagnoses, monitoring, or therapy, involving the themes of research in health technology in the dissertation or thesis.

Bibliography

  1. Bronzino, J.D. (Ed.). The Biomedical Engineering Handbook. CRC Press: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/0849383463, 1995, ISBN-10.
  2. Hartz, Z.M.A.; Silva, L.M.V. Avaliação em Saúde: dos modelos teóricos à prática na avaliação de programas e sistemas de saúde ed. EDUFBA, 2005.
  3. Shortliffe, Edward Hammond; Cimino, James J. Biomedical Informatics: Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine, 3rd ed. Springer, Nova York, 2006.
  4. Specific Literature Related to Each Specific Directed Study.

Epidemiology

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Epidemiology approaches – concepts and measures; epidemiology as a basis for the development cycle and evaluation of health technologies; research designs in epidemiology; analysis of epidemiological data; and evidence-based health.

Bibliography

  1. Ayres, J.R.C. Sobre o risco: para compreender a epidemiologia. HUCITEC, São Paulo, 1997.
  2. Barreto, M.L. et al. (orgs) Epidemiologia, Serviços e Tecnologias em saúde [Online], 1998. EpidemioLógica Series, n. 3. Editora, Rio de Janeiro FIOCRUZ. ISBN 85-85676-49-3. 235 p.
  3. Breilh, J. Epidemiologia crítica: ciência emancipadora e Interculturalidade. Rio de Janeiro. Fiocruz, 2006.
  4. Elias, F.T.S.; Patroclo, M.AdA. Utilização de pesquisas: como construir modelos teóricos para avaliação? Ciência and Saúde Coletiva. 10(1), 215-227, 2005.
  5. Novaes, H.M.D. . Revista de Saúde Pública. 34(5), 547-549, 2000.
  6. Rouquayrol, M.Z.; Gurgel, M. (organizadores). Epidemiologia e saúde, 7th ed. Rio de Janeiro: MedBook, 2013.

Functional Eletrical Simulation

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: This course is offered to graduate students with different backgrounds (engineering and health related). At the end of the course, they are going to be able to explain basic principles of excitable cells, discuss the rehabilitation of impaired body functions, indicate safety precautions to be taken regarding the development and usage of stimulators, and propose applications using available technologies.

Bibliography

  1. Keynes, R.D.; Aidley, D.J. Nerve & Muscle, 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, 179 p, 2001.
  2. Kralj, A.R.; Bajd, T. Functional Electrical Stimulation: Standing and Walking after Spinal Cord Injury. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 208 p, 1989.
  3. Reilly, J.P. Electrical Stimulation and Electropathology. Cambridge University Press, New York, 524 p, p. 19.

Health Informatics

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: History, concepts, and challenges of health informatics. Health data and information: collect, storage, use, and processing. Main areas and applications of health informatics: decision support systems, electronic health records, assessment, health informatics standards (interoperability and terminology), telemedicine, and education.

Bibliography

  1. Coiera, Enrico. Guide to Health Informatics, 3rd ed. CRC Press, 2015.
  2. Friedman, Charles P.; Wyatt, Jeremy. Evaluation Methods in Biomedical Informatics Springer Verlag, 2010.
  3. Galvao, M.C.B.; Ricarte, I.L.M.; do Paciente, Prontuário; de Janeiro, Rio Guanabara Koogan. Complementary, 2012.
  4. Hersh, William R. Information Retrieval: A Health and Biomedical Perspective. Springer Verlag, 2009.
  5. Holzinger, Andreas. Biomedical Informatics, Books on Demand, 2012.
  6. International Journal of Medical Informatics.
  7. Jourmal of Medical Informatics Association.
  8. Journal of Biomedical Informatics.
  9. Massad, Eduardo; Marin, Heimar; de Fátima; Azevedo, Raymundo Soares; de, O.; Eletrônico do Paciente na Assistência, Prontuário Informação e conhecimento médico. Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, São Paulo, 2003.
  10. Shortliffe, Edward Hammond; Cimino, James J. Biomedical Informatics: Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine, 3rd ed. Springer, Nova York, 2006.
  11. Van Bemmel, J.H.; Musen, M.A., 1997. Handbook of Medical Informatics, 1st ed., Spriger-Verlag, Alemanha, janeiro de: http://www.mihandbook.stanford.edu/handbook/homepage_self.htm.

Health Information Retrieval

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

 Syllabus: Scientific aspects and challenges of information retrieval in health applications. Knowledge discovery using structured data. Knowledge discovery in unstructured databases: texts and images. Mining of texts. Natural language processing of clinical texts in Portuguese.

Bibliography

  1. Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Ribeiro-Neto, Berthier; de Informacao, Recuperacao. Bookman, 2nd, 2013.
  2. Dale, Robert; Moisl, Hermann; Somers, Harold. Handbook of Natural Language Processing. CRC Press, 2000.
  3. Hersh, William R. Information Retrieval: A Health and Biomedical Perspective. Springer Verlag, 2003.
  4. Rezende, Solange O. Sistemas inteligentes: fundamentos e aplicações. Manole, 2005.

Health Technology Assessment

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Importance of health technology assessment in the decision-making process of managers, health, and technology professionals. Development and adoption of health technology assessment in the world and in Brazil. Health technologies: concept, life cycle, and actors in the evaluation process. Health technology assessment: what to assess, assessment of efficacy and effectiveness, assessment guidance, and assessment perspectives. Stages of health technology assessment. Challenges of health technology assessment. Types of studies used in health technology assessment and their applications. Guidelines of the Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Network for the elaboration of studies for the evaluation of medical assistance equipment; systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials; budgetary impact analyses; and studies of economic evaluation of health technologies. Evaluation of health information systems. Approaches and aspects used to evaluate health information systems. Methods and techniques used in the evaluation of health information systems

Bibliography

  1. BRASIL; Ministério da Saúde Avaliação de tecnologias em saúde: ferramentas para a gestão do SUS Secretaria-Executiva. Área de Economia da Saúde e Desenvolvimento. Brasília: Editora do Ministério da Saúde, 2009.
  2. Hartz, Z.M.A.; Silva, L.M.V. Avaliação em Saúde: dos modelos teóricos à prática na avaliação de programas e sistemas de saúde ed. EDUFBA, 2005.
  3. Lima, Sandra Gonçalves Gomes; de Brito, Cláudia; Andrade, Carlos José Coelho de O processo de incorporação de .
  4. BRASIL; Ministério da SAÚDE, Diretrizes metodológicas: estudos de avaliação econômica de tecnologias em saúde Brasília, 2009. Available in: http://200.214.130.94/rebrats/publicacoes/AVALIACAOECONOMICA.pdf.
  5. BRASIL; Ministério da SAÚDE, Diretrizes metodológicas: análise de impacto orçamentário Manual para o sistema de saúde do Brasil, 2012a. Available in. Brasília: http://200.214.130.94/rebrats/publicacoes/Livro%20Manual%20de%20Analise%20de%20Impacto%20Orcamentario.pdf.
  6. BRASIL; Ministério da SAÚDE, Diretrizes metodológicas: elaboração de revisão sistemática e metanálise de ensaios clínicos randomizados Brasília, 2012b. Available in: http://200.214.130.94/rebrats/diretriz.php.
  7. BRASIL; Ministério da SAÚDE, Diretrizes metodológicas: elaboração de estudos para avaliação de equipamentos médico-assistenciais Brasília, 2013. Available in: http://200.214.130.94/rebrats/diretriz.php.
  8. Silva, Aline Silveira; Sousa, Maria Sharmila Alina de; Silva, Emília Vitória da; Galato, Dayani. Participação social no processo de incorporação de . Revista de saúde pública. 53, 109, 2019.
  9. Silva, Hudson Pacifico da; Elias, Flavia Tavares Silva. Incorporação de tecnologias nos sistemas de saúde do Canadá e do Brasil: perspectivas para avanços nos processos de avaliação. Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 35(suppl 2), e00071518, 2019.
  10. Veiga, D.A.; Tiago, Tereza Setsuko Toma et al. Avaliação de Tecnologias de Saúde & Políticas Informadas por Evidências, 2019.
  11. Zanotto, Bruna Stella et al Avaliação Econômica de um Serviço de Telemedicina para ampliação da Atenção Primária à Saúde no Rio Grande do Sul: o microcusteio do Projeto TeleOftalmo. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva. 25(4), 1349-1360, 2020.

Introduction to Bioengineering

(3 credits/45 hours in classroom)

Syllabus: Introduction to the scientific and technological bases for the fields of bioengineering, including biomaterials, biosensors, biophysics and biomedical instrumentation, biological signal processing, biomechanics, medical imaging, neuro-engineering, clinical engineering, and rehabilitation engineering.

Bibliography

  1. Articles from Journals and National and International Congresses.
  2. Bronzino, J.D. (Ed.). Management of Medical Technology: a Primer for Clinical Engineers. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 1992.
  3. Bronzino, J.D. (Ed.). The Biomedical Engineering Handbook. CRC Press: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/0849383463, 1995, ISBN-10.
  4. Enderle, J.; Bronzino, J. Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, 3rd Academic Press, 0123749794, March 21, 2011. ISBN-10.
  5. Saltzman, W.M. Biomedical Engineering: Bridging Medicine and Technology. Cambridge Texts In Biomedical Engineering Series, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1107037190, June 4, 2015, ISBN-10.

Instrumental Techniques of Analysis of Biomaterials

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Presentation of the most used techniques for chemical and physical analysis in biomaterials; guidance on sample preparations, quantitative measurements, and management of information; fundamentals of atomic spectrometry, electroanalytical chemistry, separation methods, microscopy, surface and volumetric analysis, particle analysis, atomic force microscopy, porosimetry, and wettability.

Bibliography

  1. Agrawal, C.M.; Ong, J.L.; Appleford, M.R.; Mani, G. Introduction to Biomaterials: Basic Theory with Engineering Applications (Cambridge Texts in Biomedical Engineering), 1st ed. Cambridge University Press, 419 p, 2013.
  2. Askeland, D.W.; Wendelin, J. Ciência e engenharia dos Materiais, 2012. CENGAGE, 1st ed., 672 p.
  3. Callister, W.D. Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais: uma introdução. LTC, 8th ed., 724 p, 2012.
  4. Chen, Q.; Thouas, G. Biomaterials: A Basic Introduction, 1st ed. CRC Press, 736 p, 2014.
  5. Dowling, N.E. Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 4th ed. Prentice Hall, 960 p.
  6. Garcia, A.; Spim, J.A.; Santos, C.A. Ensaios Dos Materiais. LTC, 2nd ed, 2012.
  1. Orefice, R.L.; Pereira, M.M.; Mansur, H.S. Biomateriais: fundamentos e aplicações. Cultura médica, 1st ed., 538 p, 2007.
  2. Ratner, B.D.; Hoffman, A.S. Biomaterials Science: an Introduction to Materials in Medicine, 3rd ed. Academic Press, 1573 p, 2012.
  3. Temenoff, J.S.; Mikos, A.G. Biomaterials: the Intersection of Biology and Materials Science, 1st ed. Prentice Hall, 504 p, 2008
  4. Williams, D., 2014. Essential Biomaterials Science (Cambridge Texts in Biomedical Engineering). Cambridge University Press, 1a ed., 762 p.

Medical Imaging: Acquisition and Processing

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Image formation on cameras. Digital image processing: Boundary detection, Image segmentation, Filters. Medical imaging acquisition: Computer Tomography (CT), Ultrasound (US), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). DICOM format. Stereo-images and 3D representation.

Bibliography

  1. Castleman, Kenneth R. Digital Image Processing. Prentice Hall International, 1996.
  2. Gonzalez, Rafael C.; Woods, Richard E.; Eddins, Steve L. Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB. Pearson Prentice Hall. 609 p, 2004.
  3. Jain, Anil K. Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing. Prentice Hall, 1988.

Muscle Mechanics

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Muscle mechanic course intended for students with health backgrounds or in the area of exact sciences who wish or need to carry out theoretical–experimental analyses of the muscle contraction action. Muscle unit. Concepts of muscle mechanics: sarcomere, muscle architecture. Muscle contraction theory updates. Force-Length Curve and Force-Velocity Curve relationship. Proprioceptive structures: Golgi and muscle spindle. Motor Unit: types e firing rate. Muscle contraction identification by electromyography. 

Bibliography

  1. De Luca, C.J.; Erim, Z. Common drive of motor units in regulation of muscle force. Trends in Neurosciences. 17(7), 299-305, 1994.
  2. Edman, A. Double-hyperbolic force-velocity relation in frog muscle fibres. The Journal of Physiology. 404(1), 301-321, 1988.
  3. Enoka, R.M. ed. São Paulo: Manole. 195p, 2000 Bases neuromecânicas da cinesiologia. 2.
  4.  Gordon, M.; Huxley, A.F.; Julian, F.J. The variation in isometric tension with sarcomere length in vertebrate muscle fibres. The Journal of Physiology. 184(1), 170-192, 1966.
  5.  Gundersen, Kristian Muscle memory and a new cellular model for muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. Journal of Experimental Biology. 219(2), 235-242, 2016.
  6. Herzog, W.; Kamal, S.; Clarke, H.D. Myofilament lengths of cat skeletal muscle: theoretical considerations and functional implications. Journal of Biomechanics. 25(8), 945-948, 1992.
  7. Huxley, F.; Niedergerke, R. Structural changes in muscle during contraction; Interference microscopy of living muscle fibres. Nature. 173(4412), 971-973, 1954.
  8. Huxley, H.; Hanson, J. Changes in the cross-striations of muscle during contraction and stretch and their structural interpretation. Nature. 173(4412), 973-976, 1954.
  9. Merton, A. Voluntary strength and fatigue. The Journal of Physiology. 123(3), 553-564, 1954.
  10. Milner-Brown, H.S.; Stein, R.B.; Yemm, R. The orderly recruitment of human motor units during voluntary isometric contractions. The Journal of Physiology. 230(2), 359-370, 1973.
  11. Schappacher-Tilp, Gudrun; Leonard, Timothy; Desch, Gertrud; Herzog, Walter A novel three-filament model of force generation in eccentric contraction of skeletal muscles. PLOS ONE. 10(3), e0117634, 2015.
  12. Scheeren, Eduardo M.; Krueger, Eddy; Freitas, Cíntia. R. Eletromiografia: o que é e para que serve. Editora Universitária, Curitiba Champagnat. 72p, 2015.

Public Health Policies

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Analysis of the concept of the health–disease process; its economic, social, and political determinants; conditions for the formulation of health policies; and the formulation of health policies and organization of health services in Brazil and their correlation with national and international models of health care. Unified health system: historical construction, structuring elements, management, and financing. Public health policies and national plans as inducers of innovation and technology development processes in the health area.

Bibliography

  1. Arretche, M.; Marques, E.; locais, Condicionantes da descentralização das políticas de saúde. In: Hochman G. 4º reimpressão. Rio de Janeiro. Fiocruz, p. 173-206, 2014 Arretche M, Marques E (organizadores). Políticas públicas no Brasil.
  2. Capella, A.C.N. In: Rio de Janeiro eds. Hochman, G., Arretche, M., Marques, E. (organizadores). Políticas Públicas no Brasil. 4º reimpressão. Fiocruz, p. 87-122, 2014 Perspectivas teóricas sobre o processo de formulação de políticas públicas.
  3. Cunha, F.J.A.P.C.; Lazaro, C.P.; Pereira, H.B.B. Conhecimento, inovação e comunicação em serviços de saúde. Rio de Janeiro. Fiocruz, 2014.
  4. Dalfior, E.T.; Lima, RdC.D.; Andrade, M.A.C. Reflexões sobre análise de implementação de políticas de saúde. Saúde em Debate. 39(104), 210-225, 2015.
  5. Gadelha, Paulo. Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 31(10), 2047-2058, 2015.
  6. Giovanella, L.; Escorel, S.; Lobato, L.V.C.; Noronha, J.C.; Carvalho, A.I. (organizadores). Políticas e sistema de saúde no Brasil, 2º ed. Rio de Janeiro: Fiocruz, 2014/15.
  7. Gomes, D.; Ramos, F.R.S. Subjetividade, ética e produtividade em saúde pós-reestruturação produtiva. Ciência and Saúde Coletiva. 20(8), 2591-2600, 2015.
  8. Machado, C.V.; Baptista, T.W.F.; Lima, L.D. (organizadores) Políticas de Saúde no Brasil: continuidades e mudanças. 1º reimpressão. Rio de Janeiro. Fiocruz, 2014.
  9. Medeiros, C.R.G.; Gerhardt, T.E. Avaliação da Rede de Atenção à Saúde de pequenos municípios na ótica das equipes gestoras. Saúde em Debate. 39(spe), 160-170, 2015.
  10. Menecucci, T.M.G. Público e privado na política de assistência à saúde no Brasil: atores, processos e trajetórias. Rio de Janeiro. Fiocruz, 2007.
  11. Nodari, C.H.; Camargo, M.E.; Olea, P.M.; Dorion, E.C.H.; Claus, S.M. Configuração das práticas de inovação na atenção primária à saúde: estudo de caso. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva. Links: http://cebes.org.br/publicacao/e-books-e-video-aulas-cebes/http://www: http://conass.org.br/biblioteca/pdf/A-GESTAO-DO-SUS.pdf: http://conass.org.br/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4145:colecao-para-entender-a-gestao-do-sus-2015&catid=78:vitrine. 20(10), 3073-3086, 2015.
  12. Pessoto, U.C.R.; Ribeiro, E.A.W.; Guimarães, R.B. O papel do estado nas políticas públicas de saúde: um panorama sobre o debate do conceito de estado e o caso brasileiro. Saúde e Sociedade. 24(1), 9-22, 2015.
  13. Santos, J.S.; Teixeira, C.F. Política de saúde no Brasil: produção científica 1988-2014. Saúde em Debate. 40(108), 219-230, 2016.
  14. Sousa, C.G.W. et al Direito à saúde: o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) está em risco? Interface Botucatu. 20(56), 261-266, 2016.

Qualitative Research Methods

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Theoretical foundations of the qualitative method. Qualitative research design. Methods of collection, organization, and qualitative analysis. Qualitative methods.

Bibliography

  1. Bogdan, R.; Biklen, S. Investigação qualitativa em educação. Porto Editora, Porto, 1994.
  2. Caregnato, R.C.A.; Mutti, R. Pesquisa qualitativa: análise de discurso versus análise de conteúdo. Texto and Contexto – Enfermagem. 15(4), 679-684, 2006.
  3. Deslandes, S.F.; Assis, S.G. In: Rio de Janeiro: Fiocruz eds. Minayo, M.C.S., Deslandes, S.F. (organizadoras). Caminhos do pensamento epistemologia e método, p. 195-226, 2002 As abordagens quantitativas e qualitativas em saúde: o diálogo das diferenças. (Coleção Criança, Mulher e Saúde).
  4. Flick, Uwe. Introdução à pesquisa qualitativa, 3rd edição Ed. Cia, B., 2008.
  5. Flick, Uwe Desenho da pesquisa qualitativa. Porto Alegre: Artimed/Bookman. Coleção pesquisa qualitativa, 2009.
  6. Gibbs, Grahan Análise de dados qualitativos. Artmed. 1ª edição, 2009.
  7. Hanah, S.; Trevor, H.; Grahan, G.; Sue, H. 53 Interesting Ways of Helping Your Students to Study. Ed. Independent Publishe, 2013.
  8. Lefevre, F. LEFEVRE, A.M.C. O discurso do sujeito coletivo: pesquisa qualitativa (desdobramentos). Caxias do Sul. Educs, 2005.
  9. Minayo, M.C.S. (organizadora). In: Vozes ed. Petrópolis, 2002 Pesquisa Social teoria, método e criatividade. 21.
  10. Minayo, M.C.S.O. desafio do conhecimento pesquisa qualitativa em saúde, 8th Rio de Janeiro: Hucitec, 2004.
  11. Rocha, D.; Deusdará, B. Análise de conteúdo e análise de discurso: aproximações e afastamentos na (. Alea: Estudos Neolatinos. 7(2), 305-322, 2005.
  12. Sa, C.P. A construção do objeto de pesquisa em representações sociais. Eduerj, Rio de Janeiro, 1998.

Scientific Methodology

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Introduction to the basic concepts of scientific methodology and the main lines of epistemological thought, with an emphasis on contemporary views. Instrumentalization for the elaboration of the research project, guiding question, delimitation of the problem, hypothesis, and objectives with the respective theoretical–methodological basis. Conceptualization of technology and its interface with health within the guidelines of the Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Network.

Bibliography

  1. de Oliveira, Maria Marly; Como Fazer Projetos, Relatórios; Monografias; e Teses, Dissertações, 5th ed. Elsevier, 2010.
  2. Gil, A.C.; Projetos de Pesquisa, Como Elaborar, 5th ed. Atlas, São Paulo, 2010.
  3. Gil, Antonio Carlos; de Casos, Estudo. Fundamentação científica Subsídios para coleta e análise de dados e como redigir. Atlas, São Paulo, 2014.
  4. Grigoli, A.A. Gomes. Metodologia do trabalho científico e recursos informacionais na área da saúde. In: Marconi, M.A.; LAKATOS, E.M. Metodologia científica. 6 ed. São Paulo. Atlas, p. 2011, 2008 São Paulo: Santos.
  5. Vieira, Sônia; Hossne, William Saad. Metodologia científica para a área de Saúde. Campus, São Paulo, 2012.

Seminars in Oncologic Health Technologies

Oncology is a continuously evolving medical field, where new technologies are constantly being tested and certified to improve outcomes. This course offers an overview of oncologic health technologies, their evolution, and clinical impact. Evidence-based indications are reinforced, with oncologic, toxicity, and quality of life outcomes. The multidisciplinary team professional participating in this course will discuss freely with experts, critically review scientific data, and work with colleagues from different fields while formulating the presentations. The student will demonstrate adequate communicating skills to bring the evidence to other participants, with a proper scientific data presentation. This course will offer an understanding of all the processes and the development of new technologies, and their implications are fundamental for the professional interested in research in oncology.
Target participants: multidisciplinary focus, including students and professionals from health sciences, health care, biological sciences, engineering, information technology, or others, interested in learning the processes and pathways that new technologies are developed in oncology.

Bibliography

  1. https://www.nccn.org/
  2. https://www.cancer.gov/
  3. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1708618
  4. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1910138
  5. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcibr2035081
  6. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1712502
  7. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1805035
  8. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsr1905447
  9. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp1714533
  10. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1300720
  11. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2033374
  12. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1805101
  13. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1606221
  14. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1813181
  15. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10329031/
  16. https://www.redjournal.org/action/showPdf?pii=S0360-3016%2815%2926534-0
  17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6543101/pdf/jgo-30-e59.pdf
  18. TBD

Theories of Motor Control

(3 credits/45 hours in the classroom)

Syllabus: Concepts of biomechanics: joint torques (joint moments); elastic properties of muscles and tendons; kinematic chains; and apparent stiffness (of joints and kinematic chains). Concepts of neurophysiology: muscle tone; reflexes; preprogrammed reactions; and efferent copy. Concepts of motor control: redundancy and abundancy; motor coordination and synergy; equilibrium-point hypothesis; and motor program.

 Bibliography

  1. Danion, ; Latash, M.L. Motor Control: Theories Experiments and Applications. Oxford University Press, 2011.
  2. Enoka, R.M.; Bases Neuromecânicas da Cinesiologia, Manole, 2003.
  3. Kandel, E.R.; Schwartz, J.H.; Jessel, T.M.; Princípios da Neurociência, Manole, 2002.
  4. Winter, D.A. Biomechanics of Motor Control of Human Movement, 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons, NJ, 2009.

More Information

To obtain a master’s degree, the student must complete the program with a minimum of 40 cr (40 credits), distributed in pedagogical and technical–scientific education courses in the concentration area (18 credits), scientific seminars (2 credits), teaching internship (2 credits), and research and elaboration of the dissertation finished with the defense and approval (18 credits). In order to obtain a doctoral degree in health technology, the student must complete the program with a minimum of 64 credits, distributed in courses (24 credits), research and elaboration of the thesis finished with defense and approval, and scientific seminars (4 credits).

Contribute to the development and expansion of access to health technologies for the Brazilian population, acting in a coordinated manner:

  1. in the master’s and doctoral education capable of creating innovative solutions through the integration of knowledge in areas related to health and technology;
  2. in the development of scientific research applied to human health aiming for the creation or improvement of relevant and accessible technologies for society;
  3. in carrying out technical work, placing the professionals’ skills involved in the program at society’s service, excelling in ethics, impartiality, and seriousness.

Since 2011, PUCPR has engaged in a project called Excellence in Stricto Sensu that is aimed at internationalizing the institution’s programs to achieve maximum scores of 6 and 7 and to promote transdisciplinarity and innovation in different areas of knowledge, especially in its strategic areas. The PIBIC master program is one its greatest differentials (it allows talented students to attend both undergraduate and graduate stricto sensu programs and develop part of their research in a highly qualified foreign institution) as well as being in harmony with society and focusing on innovation.

The institution must also be constantly attentive to the changing needs of the society, with alignment/realignment to the CAPES criteria and oriented to develop internationally, having internationalization as its main guide in the search for quality in teaching and research.

Every graduate program must meet the criteria set by their corresponding committee; therefore, each program strategic planning and operating criteria needs to be done accordingly.

Criteria for each area need to be discussed within the program annually so that all necessary and appropriate corrective actions can be taken during the four-year period. Each program is committed to structuring and readjusting its strategic planning annually in search of excellence. In addition, the programs are encouraged to rethink their lines of research in order to adapt to the rapid changes that may occur in international and national scenarios.

This graduate program’s dynamism and flexibility must always meet quality criterion both in master’s and doctoral training and in the development of research and innovation, essentially aiming at the improvement of society. Thus, an annual review of each program strategic planning is requested that contains the topics below at a minimum:

  • i. Mission and vision of the program;
  • ii. Summarized annual opinion produced by an external evaluator; the annual evaluation by an external member is an institutional practice conducted since 2006, which allows for the annual performance of each program to be assessed according to the area criteria;
  • iii. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and risks (preparation of a SWOT matrix showing external and internal factors) considering the goals for the current and next four years;
  • iv. Goals (measurable objectives) established for the consolidation and development of strengths and improvement of weaknesses;
  • v. Actions (processes) necessary to achieve the objectives, people in charge, and monitoring instruments; in this topic, the coordinator and the institution should get involved to consider resizing the faculty and the student body, criteria for accreditation/re-accreditation, infrastructure, selection process, strategies to increase fundraising, and citations and innovation, among other items;
  • vi. Preliminary text of the program’s self-assessment describing the last four years containing at least the following information: stages of the self-assessment process; analysis of results and achievement of objectives; necessary actions for its consolidation and internationalization;

The IDP (Institutional Development Plan) document presents the strategic plans of all the programs aligned with the institutional planning, containing the Mission, Vision, SWOT Matrix, Canvas, and road map, and providing information on the needs and intentions of the programs for the 2017–2020 and 2021–2024 quadrennium of the CAPES evaluation.

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